RAFAEL CAPURRO: Ethics and Information in the Digital Age

Ethics is concerned with critical thinking on technical, economic, moral and legal structures and traditions that shape the lives of societies. It aims at questioning our biases as well as at opening new options. Digital libraries are part of an emerging digital culture. New questions concerning production, collection, classification and dissemination of knowledge arise within a culture of sharing that may collide with a culture of copyright protection. How can the democratic right of access to knowledge be guaranteed? Creating public digital libraries may be an answer to this question. But how do they merge into existing traditional libraries? What kind of public services should they offer? What kind of digital collections should they create? How can the integrity and sustainability of these collections be economically, technically and culturally guaranteed? Who are the de facto beneficiaries of these value-added services?

MICHEL MENOU: Digital and Social Equity? Opportunities and threats on the roads to empowerment

The so called "Digital Divide" has received increasing attention in the past few years in the highest circles, including the G8 summit. The lack of connectivity is said to be a major risk for the welfare of people while being connected is depicted as a free entrance ticket to paradise. Such millenarian views are both simplistic and unethical. They are a symptom of a spreading mental disease which we called "hICTeria". A more objective and balanced look at present divides and their causes is required. It is also useful to consider what role the Information and Communication technologies may play in people's struggle with their key problems and what other conditions should be met for this role to be effective. These issues will
be considered from a broad perspective anchored in the situation of the majority of this planet population which do not leave in the OECD member countries.

PAUL STURGES, URSULA ILIFFE AND JAMES DEARNLEY: Privacy in the digital library environment

Libraries have always held significant personal data resources, most of which relate to their users. The professional ethos of librarianship respects the confidentiality of client information. At the same time librarians have been very strongly committed to freedom of access to information. Thus the content of the confidential transactions between librarian and user has been overwhelmingly that of unquestioning response to demands for information. This has made the content of reader records of genuine potential interest to police or intelligence agencies, and in totalitarian regimes there is evidence that such records have been used for this purpose. Whilst user records have been in paper files, retrieval of specific details has not always been particularly easy. However electronic files are much more comprehensive and easy to access. Today there is a real interest from commercial organisations in data (such as library records) that would identify possible consumers of particular products and services. In the light of this radically changed situation, Re:source (the UK Council on Museums Libraries and Archives) is funding a study of the issue by the Legal and Policy Research Group at Loughborough University's Department of Information Science. A survey of a wide range of British libraries was undertaken in late 2000, as part of this project. Preliminary results from this, on the extent of libraries' awareness of the issue, and preparedness to respond to approaches for access to data, will be reported in this paper.

ERDA LAPP: The Intranet and the Internet in a University Environment: the Legal Framework

The presentation will focus on regulations for the use of the electronic library based on the Bochum experience. A further focus will be copyright in the networked world applied to linking. Also, the presentation will give information on the legal aspects of handling user and staff data and it will discuss some of the legal aspects of designing web sites and interactive products.

ALBERT K. BOEKHORST: The Learning Library

In this paper I ll describe how a cluster of nine courses was developed to upgrade and train staff in academic libraries and their contents. The project was carried out by 3 University libraries in The Netherlands with the financial support of IWI (Innovation Scientific Information). The courses are available for all academic libraries.

TVRTKO UJEVIC: Hybrid Library Project of the Croatian National Bank

The contents of the library holdings in possession of the Croatian National Bank specialised library are constrained on topics that are of preponderant importance in central banking operations and thus mainly focus on macroeconomics, monetary economics and finance. The main purpose of specialised holdings is to fulfil the needs of the CNB's employees. Influenced by its users requests, the CNB Library decided to build and to promote a completely new information and data system that will try to incorporate and enlarge the current library holdings with material represented on various word-supporting mediums. In order to accomplish such a concept, the Hybrid Library Project was first initiated as a transition stage from traditional (or conventional) library to the truly digital one. The hybrid library is nothing but a place where electronic and printed materials are equally represented. This organisational concept enabled the CNB specialised library to develop, in a relatively short time, an efficient system that entirely satisfies the current needs in data and information searching, storing and circulation. According to the project, the process of CNB's library holdings computer systematisation is well under way. All relevant references are electronically accessible (via the so-called meta data supported by documentation operating programme). As well, to its final users, the library forwards two streams of relevant information: OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue) and SDI (Select Disemination Information). The CNB library shaped its official web page in accordance with this organisational scheme. The web page also represents the starting point in reaching various components of Informational System (Library, Archive, and numerous data basis). The access to CNB's internal LAN data basis is also developed (their main purpose is to enable perusal and storage of the PDF publications). Furthermore, such an organisational approach gives the CNB's library easier and better access to library holdings and the ability to interact with various related institutions such as foreign central banks, research and academic institutions, bureaus of statistics, commercial banks and other financial institutions.

REMIGIUSZ SAPA: Academic library Web sites versus commercial Web sites: a comparative study

Library Web site can be seen both as an information service and an organizational shop window. When evaluating a library Web site quality we can't concentrate only on traditional library services but we should also evaluate its marketing strategy. In other words, in a highly competitive environment it's not enough to deliver high quality services - it is necessary to attract potential users and make a Web site visible and worth exploring. It seems to be extremely important now when many various information services are being created by amateurs with commercial purposes. Such services are often supported by powerful investors and marketing know-how. The goal of this paper is to compare what is being done to promote Web services by academic libraries in Poland in comparison with commercial companies. The stress is laid on important factors that lead to increase visits, the content and search engine optimization.


A team of members of the newly established Working Group for People with Special Needs and Disabilities of the Croatian Library Association have been creating a database of digital information for people with disabilities. The database would consist of digital texts (reference works such as dictionaries and encyclopaedias, electronic newspapers and magazines, etc.), digital tactile drawings and museum objects, and sites on the WWW which are designed in conformance to W3C Guidelines. In order to be of any use to, for example, people with impaired sight, sources of information need to be designed in accordance with W3C Guidelines and clearly structured. It is the first attempt to enable access to digital resources for this group of users. Also, there are several speech synthesis software programs available for the Croatian language that will be presented. An analyses is made of the existing ones, and a new one is created at the Faculty of Philosophy in Zagreb, Department of Phonetics, which is supposed to unite advantages of the existing ones.

TEFKO SARACEVIC: What is a 'collection' in digital libraries?

Libraries are about many things. But, collections have always been at the heart of libraries, be they digital, traditional brick and mortar, or hybrid between the two. Moreover, collections will retain that role in the future as well. However, the concept of what constitutes a collection in the networked environment of digital libraries is undergoing a transformation from the age-old concept of library collection signified by ownership. A new concept of a digital collection is evolving incorporating adaptations of many old features and standards, and creation of many brand new ones. The economics are now based on access rather than ownership. This conceptual and pragmatic evolution is far from over. Furthermore, the concept and process of collection development is undergoing a transformation as well. This is due to the effect of great many and diverse digital resources and tools that can be used in collection development and that are generally and easily available through the Internet. New processes and tools for collection development has emerged, used for development of both, traditional and digital collections. What are digital library collections? The question looms as a large problem for practice and for research and development. This presentation summarizes the problems and contemporary approaches to this question.

TEFKO SARACEVIC AND MARIJA DALBELLO: A survey of digital library education

The concept of digital library has several differing interpretations, derived from different communities involved in digital library research, practice, organization, and commerce. Educational offerings followed these activities. The major aim of the paper is to present results from a survey on the current state of digital library education in academic institutions. But we also examine the rationale and orientation for digital library education. We suggest several models that have emerged in the teaching of digital libraries and in incorporation of relevant topics into various curricula.

IGOR LJUBI, GORAN GLEDEC AND MAJA MATIJASEVIC: WWW.HR directory: Adding value by use of metadata

WWW.HR is a Web-based information service supported by the Croatian Academic and Research Network (CARNet). WWW.HR consists of two services: general info on Croatia and a directory of the Croatian Web sites. As of April 2001, the directory of Croatian Web sites contains about 6,000 links, hierarchically organized in 15 categories and 375 subcategories. Sites are added based on submissions from webmasters. All newly submitted sites are reviewed by the administrator and added to the directory. The content of the directory is fully searchable by keyword and/or by Boolean expression. Introducing metadata in the directory is studied as a way of enabling better search capabilities and thus adding value to this information service. This paper presents the evolution of the WWW.HR directory, retrospecting its past and reviewing its current status, with a special emphasis on most recent developments and use of metadata.

THOMAS FROEHLICH: Ethical principles and their application to library and information work

In the Western tradition there have evolved a series of ethical principles that many people invoke in personal and professional contexts. There are 5 main ones: (1) Respect the autonomy of the self and others (which entails such values as freedom and self-determination (moral autonomy), protection from injury, equality of opportunity, privacy, minimal well-being and recognition for one's work) ; (2) Seek justice or fairness; (3) Seek social harmony; (4) Act in such a way that the amount of harm is minimized, and (5) Be faithful to organizational, professional and public trust. Not only are there difficulties in applying these principles, there are also tensions among them, particularly those principles that respect the autonomy of human beings (deontological theories) and those principles that try to establish social harmony (consequentialist or utilitarian theories). For example, in library collection development, there are two contrary ethical demands. When a public library's selection policies favor acquiring materials that suit the interests of the majority of its patrons (e.g., buying best sellers) they are following utilitarian or consequentalist principles (principle 3 above), and if high circulation counts are a measure for the library's utility, it would benefit the library to do so; yet excessive spending on best sellers does a disservice to the atypical library user. On other occasions, collection developers may act like Kantians (principles 1 and 2). When libraries buy works only likely to attract few readers, we are respecting the diversity of library users; yet excessive spending on low-frequency-usage works does a disservice to the majority of library users. This presentation will explore some of the tensions of ethical principles as applied to library and information work.

THOMAS FROEHLICH: Copyright and Fair Use: Fair Use as a Right?

The Anglo-American tradition of fair use appears to be under attack and declining in the midst of the global information economy and the commoditization of information. Under the doctrine of fair use, there are clear exemptions against claims of copyright infringement: In the United States, the doctrine of fair use (similar to fair dealing in the United Kingdom) permits certain uses of copyrighted works: for criticism, reporting, comment, news, teaching, scholarship and research, but even within these cases, each specific case must be judged on its own grounds.

In the United States, there are four factors to consider in each case: (1) the purpose and character of the use, e.g., whether it is of a commercial or educational nature; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work, e.g., scholarly works are more likely to be regarded as fair use than works for entertainment; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used, e.g., the less used or the less the significance of the portion used, the more likely the courts will see the case as fair use; and (4) the marketability of the work, e.g., if the market value of the work declines because of the use, it is more likely the courts will find unfair use. It is the last factor which appears to have the most weight in the US courts.

In the United States, there are two ways in which fair use is seen: (a).The traditional approach: in the circumstances named above fair use is a defense against infringement. (b). An emerging view: fair use is a right or entitlement which has an affirmative character. People have a right to free use of materials for educational and cultural purposes. The rationale is that while authors create works, they also have cultural debts: no author exists unto him- or her-self. Their ability to write and create only exists because of the writers and authors that lived before them and from whom they derived inspiration, technique, ideas, etc.

Such a view lies in tension with the European tradition. Fair use has eroded more and more both in the United States and Anglo-American countries and also around the world and if economic interests (not necessarily all rights owners) have their way, it may be rendered obsolete. In many countries there is a public lending right, even for public and academic libraries, whereby fees are paid on an annual basis to proprietary interests. Whether such factors be considered in the use of copyrighted information on the web remains to be seen. The hope and struggle is that fair use in copyright law, national and international, will continue to apply with full force in the digital networked environment and that international treaties or laws will not nullify such provisions.

WALLACE KOEHLER: Digital Divide and Ethics

The digital divide issue incorporates two or more of the values librarians recognize as primary. These include literacy, equality of access, and information literacy. The literacy question and the access question are ageless. The term digital divide means the difference in access to digital information, skills, hardware and software by information "haves" and "have nots." The term has been used in two ways -- to describe the gap between haves and have nots within countries like the United States or Brazil. It is also used to describe the differences between the post industrial information age countries lie the countries of North America and Western Europe and the Newly Industrializing Countries (NIC) of Africa, parts of Asia, and parts of South and Central America.

PREDRAG PALE: Cybercitizen's need for copyright

Copyright stems form the wish of an individual and/or institution to protect its own information from change, abuse or misuse by others, as well as to gain and restrict financial benefit(s) from its own previous work.
However, the world is changing. Copyright idea comes from the world in which publishing is technologically and organizationally difficult, financially and time-wise expensive, indirect, as well as controlled, filtered, censored. Only small number of authors can publish and even then their reach to the audience is limited by geography, audience's interest and accessibility and affordability of information.
Cyberworld, on the other hand, allows just anyone to disseminate any information to anyone and everyone without intermediaries. It is fast, cheap, direct and without control. Publisher is often not needed and financial profit is not always the motivation to publish.
In Cyberworld, even if one wants and holds copyright, it is very difficult to enforce it. Once the information is released into the Net, it is copied and stored in multitude of places for technical reasons: proxies, caches, back up and archives. Illegal copies appear and disappear suddenly in various places. Translation in other languages makes it very difficult to discover illegal copies automatically. Even if the illegal copy is found, it is very difficult to identify the violator and prove his guilt.
Actually, protection of documents is a general need, much broader than the area of copyrighted materials. Today, solution is sought in technology by the use of digital signatures. Tomorrow, major solution will be organizational, in the form of various public, trusted "archives", be it libraries, archives, solicitors or commercial back-up services. They will receive documents over the Net and store them on the read-only media thus preserving the content, date and authorship. In addition, author could store the acceptable use policy for the document, effectively applying customized copyright to the document. Every piece of text (possibly other types of information: picture, sound, etc…) could be looked up in public archive should any suspicion arise of the document's authenticity.
As for the wish of authors to gain financial benefits, very interesting is the emergence of the "open source" philosophy. Although originating from software writers community, it is gaining popularity in many other creative areas, as well. The idea behind it is that in order to "sell" an information "product" it needs to be "packaged": fully equipped, checked, formatted and advertised. Once on the "market" it needs to be maintained. For many authors this is not what they want to do or at least not in the most areas they produce information. In all those non-mainstream (for the author) areas they produce bits and pieces that might be very useful to other people and it would cause no cost or harm to the author if he would share it globally, free of charge. Other people might do the same and author might find them useful in his mainstream work. Thus, mutual sharing of information is useful and beneficial. Besides, it feels good doing something for others and them liking it.
Simultaneously, another, extremely important technology is being developed: digital cash. The payments become safe, easy, fast and cheap due to low risk, anonymity and valet agents residing on customer's personal computer. The most important feature is that it allows very small amounts to be paid directly to recipient, even the amounts like 10 cents. The technology of micro payments it's the foundation of "one dollar economy".
In conclusion, everyone is (potential) author of a great variety of works. Publishing is cheap with minimum (if any) intermediaries between the author and the audience. Copyright demand and usage will not grow proportionally with the growth of authors and works published. The needs to protect authenticity, integrity and usage of documents can be satisfied through alternative "technologies" like public, trusted "archives". The change of behavior of consumers can also be expected with the advent of micro payments, which will remove all obstacles to "pay-per-usage" for all consenting users.
Thus, it is expected for copyright to decrease in its importance in Cyberworld and to be restricted only to certain publishers, authors and works at their discretion.
More important, it is not expected that problems in enforcing copyright in the Cyberworld would have significant influence on the (speed of) development and publishing of any kind.

MARIJA DALBELLO: The Virtual Archive and National Memory: Toward A Comparative Study of Digital Library Models in North American and European Setting

Is it true that digital libraries are for the most part "write only archives," adding to an overall deluge of electronic data and lack of relevant information? Arguably, these "information spaces" should be able to provide cultural experiences, in order to participate in the public discourses of culture. They would have to grow beyond collections from which relevant information may be retrieved efficiently, to the new metaphors of culture. This paper outlines a program for the study of the current involvement of current digital library initiatives (in North America) in creating digital history. This paper is an exploratory study of digital library as cultural agency. It aims to establish a model for the comparative study of the structures providing digital continuity to historical materials, the archival digital libraries. In the United States, there is a variety of projects, some of which have emerged in a variety of academic settings, such as The Making of America (Cornell), the Library of Congress' American Memory, and other efforts, primarily associated with universities, and memory institutions (archives, libraries and museums). The European models have a centralized approach, developing from within the national libraries. The focus of the study is on individual cultural contexts and how they are approaching the issues of managing cultural heritage. The analysis is based on existing research of social memory (Fentress & Wickham 1991), national culture (Confino 1997) and the process of invented traditions (Hobsbawm and Ranger 1983). The models are largely determined by the funding process, which calls for an analysis of national information policies with regard to funding current digital library projects. The methodology used is a combination of document analysis and website analysis and in this first phase, it develops a framework using data from the projects in the United States.
This project reports on some findings from a larger programme initiated by Marija Dalbello at Rutgers University to study comparatively digital initiatives in various national contexts. Selected national projects in Europe and East Asian contexts as well as the initiatives in the United States are studied as part of this ongoing project.
Slides accompanying this presentation are available as a
file (184 K) that can be downloaded to your computer and viewed using PowerPoint, or as an online presentation. The full text of the presentation is forthcoming.



SOFIJA KLARIN, SONJA PIGAC, DAMIR PAVELIC, PAUL CUNNEA: Metadata on the Word Wide Web: an analysis of Croatian electronic publishing

The explosion of publishing in the Internet raises the problems of searching, retrieval, identification and preservation of electronic documents. Librarians create metadata (bibliographic records) to manage and provide access to collections. Cataloguing is a primary method of bibliographic control but there is no way the librarians can describe even the most relevant Internet resources because the number of relevant documents is too big. Metadata, often defined as data about data, is seen as welcomed alternative to cataloguing. In the Internet metadata is a structured description of attributes of a resource. Matadata functionality goes beyond the cataloguing functions of description and access, to include content rating for filtering out sensitive information objects, and description of intellectual property rights of electronic publications. The reason there is not much metadata in the Internet is the fact that publishers adopt standards only where there are good comercial reasons for doing so.

Interchange of metadata between publishers and libraries will be an essential element in managing the deposit of electronic publications in the future. Electronic publishing in Croatia has been growing slowly in the last ten years. Today we have more than 150 serial publications (newspapers, weekly magazines, e-zines etc.) and small numer of monograph publications has also been published (fiction, IT manuals). E-publications metadata descriptions are (un)available depending on (lack of) seriousness and skills in presenting them.

This workshop will briefly explain/remind us of different models of metadata, with the emphasis being on Dublin Core. Simplicity of making meta descriptions using freeware web-available editors will be shown. Once made, metadata can easily be put into an HTML document in different formats such as Dublin Core, RDF-XML or XHTML. Consideration of different metadata schemes and conversion tools from one format to another will be mentioned.

In the context of publishing on the Web this workshop will describe the electronic environment, explore the role of the library in managing e-publications, the current development of e-publishing in Croatia, and the use of embedded metadata on the Web. The scale of the Web and the challenges for those contemplating its management are briefly examined. The possibilities and practicalities of cataloguer-based management are described, focusing on bibliographic control of e-serials. This will include reference to the use of existing standards, differences and similarities between traditional and electronic resources, emerging definitions, and the practical issues that arise in e-serial management.

This is followed by an overview of the current state of e-publishing in Croatia. Two surveys were carried out. All e-serials were examined and the results concerning availability, publishing and publishers will be shown. An additional survey has been carried out among e-publishers on their knowledge of metadata in general, metadata description and schemes, metadata use in HTML documents and interest in cooperating and learning more. Based on the results i.e. e-serial authors` point of view, current practice in Croatian libraries and practical examples from from other libraries and projects. (Biblink, CORC), new metods of cooperation between libraries and publishers will be discussed.

MALORE I. BROWN: Digital Libraries and Children's Collections in Public Libraries: Where do they meet?

Objectives: Participants will understand the importance of digital collections in children's collections in public libraries and how to select materials for the digital and traditional collections. Participants will gain insight into collection development of electronic resources that compliment their traditional collections and recognize the realities of day-to-day management of a virtual library environment. Participants will be able to answer the following questions: How can digital libraries prepare children for the virtual information world? What are the implications for the development of digital collections?

Description: This program focuses on digital information resources, and virtual collection development. With the foundation of traditional information resources, participants are introduced to the role of emerging technologies in the digital information environment.

Areas of focus include: the coordination, management and evaluation of virtual information services; content development, selection and management in this environment; issues in digital information collections, such as access versus ownership, and risk management in the context of rapid technological change.

Program Format: One and a half hour

Topical Outline: Presentation of process of collection development in a traditional public library setting (20 minutes). Identify the challenges of collection development in digital libraries (20 minutes). Presenter will highlight the practice issues and research issues in selecting and access both types of collections (20 minutes). Participants are encouraged to discuss concerns in selection of materials (30 minutes).

IRENA PILAS AND ZANETA BARSIC-SCHNEIDER: Official publications on the Web (workshop will be offered in Croatian language)

Official information available on the Web are today essential source of information not only for government institutions, scientific research and education but for all citizens in a democratic society. Official publications and governmental publications can be found at a number of Web pages. In addition, digital libraries are being founded by international organisations and governments wishing to provide thorough and extensive information on the way they are organised and structured, as well as on decisions they make and policies they carry out. Section on Government Information and Official Publications is a part of IFLA. IFLA, together with some similar organisations, like FAIFE, is in charge of making official publications available to a large number of users. It is also worth noting that the United Nations on the intercontinental level, and EU and EC on the European level, have made a number of decisions to secure the availability of official publications and information. Those materials are very valuable because they provide thematically varied scope of information put together by a team of experts. They are to be accessed through all media, but the Internet, where they have been generally made available in their full versions. The workshop is intended to demonstrate methods of searching and retrieval of official publications available on the Internet. Special attention will be particularly paid to specifications of their network outlets. Also, Croatian, US, Canadian, Australian etc. governmental official publications will be presented, searched and evaluated, as well as publications provided by other international and national organisations available on WEB.

PAUL NIEUWENHUYSEN: Online access to information sources and services

In this workshop an overview is presented of contemporary methods to find information through the Internet and the WWW about a particular subject, to support management, decision making, scientific research, journalism and so on. It is hoped to have a lively discussion and some hands-on experience by using the available microcomputers and Internet access. The following subjects are briefly discussed: dictionaries and encyclopedias, Internet subject directories for browsing, Internet indexes for full text searching, multi-threaded meta-search systems, finding images and sounds, finding books and journal articles, using electronic journals, using current awareness systems, classical citation searching through the WWW and using citations to WWW pages, evaluation of Internet based information sources, evolution and trends in online information services, using computer-based network interest groups. Because only 90 minutes are available during the actual workshop, participants should ideally come well prepared by experience or by inspecting some of the study materials in the form of slide presentations that may be relevant for this workshop, which are available through the WWW at or by reading some documents that are included in the bibliographies that come with the presentations, and which are also available through the WWW at .

The participants can raise questions and can express their preference for particular topics to be discussed during the workshop, by sending an email message to as soon as possible before the workshop.

MICHEL MENOU: Myths, realities and solutions regarding the "digital divide"

At both the national and international level, the so-called " Digital divide " has been the focus of attention among most parties concerned with the new E-conomy. Whether this is a specific phenomenon, what are its characteristics and what actions and policies can be devised in order to deal with it are subject to debate. Despite the current confusion, public ICT policies seem to be built on the assumption that they have to overcome this Digital divide and claim they are going to do it. The workshop is intended to provide an opportunity for an unconstrained brainstorming about the concept, the facts and their assessment, the appropriate policies. Participants are invited to critically review related literature, policy material and public discourses in their respective countries or areas or expertise or interest and bring to the workshop their answers to such questions as:

  • Is there really a digital divide?

  • If yes, how can it be measured, what are its causes and effects?

  • If not, what is all that fuss about?

  • What are current policies likely to achieve?

  • What policies are required to properly address the inequities in access and use of ICT?

  • What are the conditions for these policies to be effective?

  • What are the appropriate ways to present issues related ICT in society with a view to ensure effective citizens' participation in a democratic debate and decision-making process?

MARTHA M. SMITH: Selection not Censorship: Collection Development in a Global Digital Age

Beginning in the mid-fifties, Professor Lester Asheim made a significant contribution to debates about censorship and the role of the librarian in collection development. By focusing on the positive aspect of selection, inclusion rather than exclusion, Asheim envisioned a practical approach, thoroughly grounded in the highest standards of the profession and one as useful in the digital age as it was in the mid-century. This presentation will revisit Asheim's insights in light of the challenges of the digital age, using the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The idea of the collection will be examined as a moral artifact and the librarian as an active selector and a moral agent in contributing to the goals of freedom, justice and peace. The key statement often associated with libraries and libraries, Article 19, will set the context.

Article 19: "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers."

Like Asheim's principle, Article 19 will be applied to the special challenges of both traditional and virtual libraries as telecommunications and the Internet connects the peoples of the world. The threats to freedoms as well as the potential for extending human dignity and rights will be explored with concrete suggestions for action, local and global.


IRENE WORMELL: Adding value to information services : Exploring databases as analytical tools (half day, 4 hours)

The tutorial will draw attention to the vast potential of online databases as analytical tools and present methodologies how to track down analytical information in large collections of bibliographic data. It will be emphasised that advanced online search facilities have considerably increased the potential application of bibliometric analysis for tracing trends and developments in society, science and business. Through the presentation of research projects and case studies carried out at the Centre for Informetric Studies in Copenhagen, the scope and nature of informetric analyses will be discussed from the perspective of information professionals and online searchers. The presentation will also include a discussion on the possibility of applying informetric methods to the analysis of the World Wide Web (Webometrics) - for measuring impact, visibility and connectivity.

Who should attend?

Research librarians, (advanced) online searchers and researchers involved in the (quantitative) analysis of the literature in various disciplines and business areas. Information professionals supporting teams of market and business intelligence, policy makers, managers of scientific and technical development projects, innovation teams.

Irene Wormell´s publications related to the topic:

  1. Bibliometric Analysis of the International Impact of Scientific Journals. How "international" are the international journals. Journal of Documentation, 54(1998) 5, pp. 584-605.

  2. Establishment of a LIS research and education network in the Republic of South Africa. Education for Information, 16(1998)3, p. 253

  3. Online searching is like gold-washing. Managing Information, 5(1998)7, pp.37-40

  4. Informetrics: Exploring databases as analytical tools. Database, 21(1998)5, pp. 25-30

  5. Publication behaviour and international impact: Scandinavian clinical and social medicine 1988-96.

  6. Scientometrics, 46(1999). pp.487-499. (Co-author with P.Ingwersen)

  7. Libri´s Golden Jubilee in a Bibliometric Mirror. Libri, 50(2000)2, 30 p. In Press.

  8. Bibliometric Analysis of the Welfare State as a Research Phenomenon. Scientometrics, 47(2000)2, pp.203-236 .

  9. Critical Aspects of the Danish Welfare State -As Revealed by Issue Tracking. Scientometrics, 47(20002, pp.237-250.